Introduction to Meditation
Traditionally, in China and Korea, only monks did Zen practice. But Zen has come to the West and
here lay people practice Zen. This has changed the character of Zen. Now our teaching is about Zen in
everyday life. Sitting Zen all the time is not possible for lay people. Everyday-life Zen means learning
mind-sitting. Mind-sitting means not-moving mind. How do you keep not-moving mind? Put down
your opinion, condition and situation moment-to-moment. When you are doing something, just do it.
This is everyday Zen. For lay people the teaching of great love, great compassion and the Great Bodhisattva
Way is very important. To attain that, it is necessary to keep a not-moving mind, then correct
situation, correct function, and correct relationship appear by themselves in everyday life.
There are various forms of meditation. Each technique has a special effect on the mind. The
various techniques are discussed below.
These practices are the heart of meditation. They have different effects on the mind when they are
practiced. Also the speed of the effect can be different depending on the technique used.
In all meditation techniques, the breath is important. To calm your body down, it is helpful to
take several long, deep breaths at the beginning of meditation. Breathe using the diaphragm and
center the breath in the lower belly. It should be relaxed, natural and quiet—the breath should
Technique 1: counting the breaths
This practice, often recommended for beginners, brings attention to each breath and helps to still
and focus the mind. The count may be done on either the inhalation or exhalation. The count is
done either up to three or up to ten and then repeated for the duration of the sitting period. If the
count is lost, then the practitioner returns to one.
Technique 2: keeping a question
Having a great question is fundamental to Zen practice. The questions most often used are “What
am I?” or “What is this?” (in Korean “Shi Shim Ma?”). Let go of all thinking, opinions and desires
and continually return to the questioning. This practice is usually co-ordinated with the breath.
The question may be asked during the inhalation, followed by a prolonged “Don’t Know” on the
exhalation; or the question may be asked on the exhalation. Both techniques promote a return to
the before-thinking mind.
Technique 3: mantra practice
Using a mantra to calm the mind and strengthen the center is another technique used by Zen
practitioners. The main difference between the mantras is the length of the mantra used and the
mantra’s direction. Generally the more incessant the thinking, the shorter the mantra should be.
The usual technique is to recite the mantra constantly, paying attention to it and allowing all
other thinking to drop away. This takes some practice since it is very easy to let one part of the
brain “chant” the mantra while the other part is thinking about dinner or going to the movies.
When this happens, gently bring the mind back to the mantra without any judgement. The most
common mantras recommended for beginners are the two listed below.
1) Clear mind, clear mind, clear mind, don’t know
This mantra is usually suggested to beginners in conjunction with a breathing exercise. Breathe
in to a count of 3, saying “clear mind” at each count and breathe out to a count of 7 saying
‘dooooonnnn’t knnnnooooooow’ just once for the whole 7 count. The count may vary with the
individual, but the exhalation must be more than twice as long as the inhalation.
2) Kwan Seum Bosal
This is the Korean name of the Bodhisattva of Compassion, Avalokitesvara. This mantra is commonly
suggested for people whose minds cannot be quiet one minute or who cannot concentrate
for very long. Because it is short it can be repeated over and over (usually with a set of beads for
counting). The usual recommendation is for 3000 to 10000 a day for someone who really wants
to clear their mind of a particular problem. It is also used on a daily basis by many people as part
of their sitting meditation technique. More advanced students often use the entire Great Dharani as a mantra,
reciting it sub-vocally as fast as possible over and over again.
Technique 4: chanting
Although the individual chants—especially the Great Dharani—may be done alone as mantras,
chanting done in a group is also meditation practice. The key to chanting correctly is to chant
with 100 percent focus and energy: just loud enough to hear your own voice, and softly enough
to hear everyone else in the room. This allows everyone to follow the moktak master for the chant
as there is no one voice over-powering all the rest. Also people who have a hard time singing in
key can then blend in with everyone and the sound from the chant in group will truly be togetheraction–
all minds becoming one. Kido chanting is an especially strong form of chanting meditation.
Technique 5: prostrations
Prostrations are a very powerful technique for seeing and working through the karma of a difficult
situation because both the mind and the body are involved. Something that might take days of
sitting to digest may be digested in a much shorter time with prostrations. A common practice,
especially popular in Korea, is to do 1000 bows a day (actually 1080). This can be done all at once
or as is usually the case, spread out through the day. For instance,
1 set for morning bows,
2 sets before breakfast,
2 sets at lunch time,
2 sets mid-afternoon,
1 set before evening practice,
2 sets after evening practice.
This is a demanding schedule. Practitioners often commit to to 300 or 500 bows a day.
Technique 6: clear mind meditation
This form of meditation involves just sitting and being aware of what is going on at just this
moment. This is moment-to-moment mind. It hears the birds in the trees, the cars going by, the
planes overhead, and the children playing outside. To the clear mind there is no such thing as
‘noisy’, it all just ‘is.’ This is not a technique for beginners, but is an out-growth of experience
with the previous meditation techniques.